待從頭,收拾舊山河,朝天闕.My heart is heavy tonight. The news has confirmed the imposition of 7m population grow at all cost. I really don’t give a damn about all the losers on that island. But, I do still have loved ones who are left behind. I am too weak to be able to bring everyone out. For all the intelligence in me, I was systematically sucked dry before I could release myself from that hell hole. The battle was long and the victory hard. But, my victory was not without sacrifice. I have to sacrifice some of my most loved ones to be left behind. I do hope with my future years, I might be able to build enough strength to pull one by one over. My heart is soft and tender. But, not all believe and walk in the same softness. Just then, my tears welled up. I truly felt sorry for all my loved ones who are still forced to drink toilet water on a daily basis. Evil knows no bounds.
The folks on that island didn’t realize that that island would soon be remembered as the place of the next holocaust - Holocaust II. The infamy is really a cruel joke.
Dr John B. Calhoun
Dr. John B. Calhoun, an American research psychologist of the National Institute of Mental Health, set out to prove his theory on the dangers of population overcrowding. He claimed that the bleak effects of overpopulation on rodents were a grim model for the future of the human race. During his studies, Calhoun coined the term "behavioral sink" to describe aberrant behaviors in overcrowded population density situations and “beautiful ones” to describe passive individuals who withdrew from all social interaction.
In 1947, Calhoun’s neighbour agreed to let him build a rat enclosure on disused woodland behind his house in Towson, Maryland. Calhoun would later reflect that his neighbour probably expected a few hutches, perhaps a small run. What Calhoun built was quarter acre pen, what he called a “rat city”, and which he seeded with five pregnant females. Calhoun calculated that the habitat was sufficient to accommodate as many as 5000 rats. Instead, the population levelled off at 150, and throughout the two years Calhoun kept watch, never exceeded 200. That the predicated maximum was never reached ought to come as no surprise: 5000 rats would be tight indeed. A quarter acre is little over 1000 square meters, meaning each rat would have to itself an area of only about 2000 square centimetres, roughly the size of an individual laboratory cage. Be that as it may, a population of only 150 seemed surprisingly low. What had happened?
In 1954, Calhoun persevered and repeated the experiment in specially constructed “rodent universes” – room-sized pens which could be viewed from the attic above via windows cut through the ceiling. He had chosen rodent species that are aplenty in North America, and are true omnivores — would eat almost anything — have acute hearing, are sensitive to ultrasound, and possess a highly developed olfactory sense. A 2007 study discovered too that these rodents possess meta-cognition, a mental ability previously found only in humans and some select primates. He once more provided his populations with food, bedding, and shelter. With no predators and with exposure to disease kept at a minimum, Calhoun described his experimental universes as “rat utopia”, “mouse paradise”. He wanted to create a colony of cultivated rodents – rats with “values” as high as any human values. The cage was always cleaned, was well-stocked with food and water and was free from predators— indeed, an ideal habitat, except for its overcrowded condition. The rodents were deprived of privacy, with no time or space to be alone. Since there was no escape, Dr Calhoun was especially interested in how these animals would handle themselves in their crowded environment.
He placed 32 to 56 rodents in a 10- by 14-foot case in a barn on a Montgomery County farm. Using electrified partitions, he divided the space into four rooms. Each was designed to support 12 adult brown Norway rats. Rats could move between the rooms only via the ramps he built.
With all their visible needs met, the animals bred rapidly. The population grew to 80 in the first instance. The only restriction Calhoun imposed on his population was of space. As the scientist observed, a social hierarchy developed: One despot male and 9 females claimed the two defensible pens with only one ramp provided; 60 others crowded into the other 2 pens with two ramps. Calhoun found that “rodent utopia” rapidly became “hell”.
He allowed them to populate to 2600, about 16 times what would be considered normal density. When thrown together in such huge numbers, rodents rapidly develop a hierarchy. Those rodents closest to the food supply grow most rapidly. Because of their size, these rodents also assume higher social status.
Adult rodents develop optimal groups (or cliques) of about a dozen in each group. Rodents organize themselves into twelve or thirteen local colonies of a dozen rats each, the maximum number that can live harmoniously in a natural group. Beyond this number, stress and psychological effects take control and force-break the group. Dr Calhoun says every species of organisms has an optimal group size, and when a group gets to be twice its optimal size it must split—or perish.
Rodents perform particular functions to preserve and protect their clique. For example, instead of adopting new social roles necessary to survive in their densely populated universe, they on their own develop ways of manipulating the environment by blocking major passageways with paper in order to isolate themselves and reduce social interaction.
He described the onset of several toxic pathologies: violence and aggression, with rats in the crowded pen “going berserk, attacking females, juveniles and less-active males”. There was also “sexual deviance”. Dominant males became aggressive, some moving in groups, attacking females and the young. Mating behaviors were disrupted. Some became exclusively homosexual. Others became pansexual and hypersexual, attempting to mount any rat they encountered. Rats became hypersexual, pursuing females relentlessly even when not in heat. The mortality rate among females was extremely high. A large proportion of the population became bisexual, then increasingly homosexual, and finally asexual.
Mothers neglected their infants, first failing to construct proper nests, and then carelessly abandoning and even attacking their pups. Mothers neglected their infants, first failing to construct proper nests, and then carelessly abandoning and even attacking their pups. In certain sections of the pens, infant mortality rose as high as 96%, the dead cannibalized by adults.
Calhoun coined a term — “behavioral sink” — to describe the decay.
At a latter phase, subordinate animals withdrew psychologically, surviving in a physical sense but at an immense psychological cost. They were the majority in the late phases of growth, existing as a vacant, huddled mass in the centre of the pens. Unable to breed, the population plummeted and did not recover. The crowded rodents had lost the ability to co-exist harmoniously, even after the population numbers once again fell to low levels. At a certain density, they had ceased to act like rats and mice, and the change was permanent.
The males in the group who normally protect their territory withdraw from leadership and turn uncharacteristically passive. Notable conditions in the behavioral sink also include hyper-aggression, with the females in the group becoming unusually aggressive and forcing out the young. In a crowded environment such as this, there is notably a deterioration of attitude, spirit, and health of the organisms.
Dr Calhoun clearly saw these rats and mice as models for man. Life in an unnatural urban environment of ever-increasing density could result in the complete devastation of humanity. He noted that even when population levels dropped and more space became available, the community never recovered. Even when healthy rodents are placed in the new environment, they never breed successfully again.
Organisms need space to comfort selves, to seek refuge and privacy, and find connection.
Other notable conditions in the behavioral sink also include failure to breed and nurture young normally, infant cannibalism, increased mortality rate at all ages. Dr. Calhoun saw universal autism among rodents. This is a phenomenon in which all members of the last generation of rodents in a super-crowded environment become incapable of social interaction that would allow them to produce the next generation.
The whole rodent society ultimately became disrupted, and after five years all of them died. Dr. Calhoun was convinced that his mice and rat populations were an accurate model for humans. He didn’t regard it as hypothesis any more, he regarded it as factual.
Initially the population grew rapidly, doubling every 55 days. The population reached 620 by day 315, after which the population growth dropped markedly. The last surviving birth was on day 600. This period between day 315 and day 600 saw a breakdown in social structure and in normal social behavior. Among the aberrations in behavior were the following: expulsion of young before weaning was complete, wounding of young, inability of dominant males to maintain the defense of their territory and females, aggressive behavior of females, passivity of non-dominant males with increased attacks on each other which were not defended against. After day 600 the social breakdown continued and the population declined toward extinction. During this period females ceased to reproduce. Their male counterparts withdrew completely, never engaging in courtship or fighting. They ate, drank, slept, and groomed themselves – all solitary pursuits. Sleek, healthy coats and an absence of scars characterized these males. They were dubbed “the beautiful ones”.
The conclusions drawn from this experiment were that when all available space is taken and all social roles filled, competition and the stresses experienced by the individuals will result in a total breakdown in complex social behaviors, ultimately resulting in the demise of the population.
From the ill-fated experiment, increasing homosexuality is brought about by lack of female interactions or the males' inability to convince the females of their dominance and quality of their gene pools to sire the next generation. Hence, they turn to their same sex for comfort and release of sexual tension.
I have seen many personal examples of males being withdrawn but well-groomed (寂寞宅男) and aggressive females (美女玩家) who sexed anything with a tiny semblance to cash. They are mutants forced by circumstances. It is very sad.
That little island is heading towards the same fate as the rat paradise - the Holocaust II. The controllers of the island of course do have a choice - all their off-springs are now sent overseas and stayed overseas. But, how about the weak ones that are forced to participate in this terrible experiment? It is very sad indeed.
Let this essay be kept as a historical record of how mindless these controllers are in pursuit of personal glory.
They will meet their makers with blood in their hands. Because they gave no quarters in their life time, in time their off-springs will also receive no quarters. I will ensure that. No pity, no mercy. 醉臥沙場君莫笑 古來征戰幾人回
That island after all is only just that - a tiny island.
The notes on Dr Calhoun's Experiment is here: Dr Calhoun's Experiment